|TS EN ISO 10545-1 Sampling and basis for acceptance|
|TS EN ISO 10545-2 Determination of dimensions and surface quality|
|TS EN ISO 10545-3 Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density and bulk density|
|TS EN ISO 10545-4 Determination of modulus of rupture and breaking strength|
|TS EN ISO 10545-5 Determination of impact resistance by measurement of coefficient of restitution|
|TS EN ISO 10545-6 Determination of resistance to deep abrasion for unglazed tiles|
|TS EN ISO 10545-7 Determination of resistance to surface abrasion for glazed tiles|
|TS EN ISO 10545-8 Determination of linear thermal expantion|
|TS EN ISO 10545-9 Determination of resistance to thermal shock|
|TS EN ISO 10545-10 Determination of moisture expantion|
|TS EN ISO 10545-11 Determination of crazing resistance for glazed tiles|
|TS EN ISO 10545-12 Determination of frost resistance|
|TS EN ISO 10545-13 Determination of chemical resistance|
|TS EN ISO 10545-14 Determination of resistance to stains|
|TS EN ISO 10545-16 Determination of small colour differences|
|DIN 51130 Testing of floor coverings - Determination of the anti-slip property – Ramp test|
|TSE CEN/TS 16165 Determination of slip resistance of pedestrian surfaces – Methods of Evaluation – Annex B|
|BS 7976-2:2002 + A1 2013 Pendulum Testers Part:2 Method of Operation|
|TS EN 13036-4 Road and airfield surface characteristics - Test methods - Part 4: Method for measurement of slip/skid resistance of a surface: The pendulum test (Laboratory Testing)|
|ANSI / NFSI B101-2012 Test Method for Measuring Wet DCOF of Common Hard- Surface Floor Materials|
|ANSI A.137.1-2012 Wet Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (DCOF) Testing|
|NF D 14-501 Resistance To Abrasion Of Enamelled Surfaces|
|ASTM C 830 Standard Test Methods for apparent Porosity, Liquid Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Density of Refractory Shapes by Vacuum Pressure|
|ASTM C 357 Standard Test Method for Bulk Density of Granular Refractory Materials|
|ASTM C 133 Standard Test Methods for Cold Crushing Strength of Refractories|
Zetasizer is used in order to measure particle size, zeta potential and molecular weight measurement and creation of zeta potential curve, which are the most important three parameters in colloid and polimer chemistry. The stability of colloids, commonly used in ceramic and medical industry, is related with zetasizer's magnitude that designates attractive and repulsive forces between particles. Zetasizer device, determining the velocities of particles under a specific potential, calculates zeta potential. Particle velocity and particle size is determined by laser diffraction method.
The equipment works at a temperature range of 2-90°C, and has a particle size measurement range of (depends on the sample) 0.6 nm - 6 nm. The particle size range that device can measure the zeta potential is 3 nm- 10 μm (depends on the sample) and molecular weight measurement range is 1000 - 2x107 Da.
Rheological properties impact at all stages of material use across ceramic industry – from formulation development and stability to processing to product performance. Examples of rheological measurements include:
Laser diffraction method is used to measure particle size between 0.2-2000 µm of ceramic particles in suspension or dry particulate form. The measurement gives values of d10, d50, d90, size distribution percentage in/under volume or surface.
This technique is especially suitable for accurate particle size measurement of layered structural materials like clay and kaolinite. Using a horizontal and thin x-ray gun, it determines relative mass concentration of particles in the liquid with measuring the intensity of x-rays. Homogeneously mixed liquid and solid is transferred into measurement cell. Solid particles absorp certain degree of x-ray energy. As x-rays scan, mixing process stops and particles are allowed to precipitate. Using the viscosity and density data and precipitation rate in a certain media, particle size of particles are determined by Stoke's Law. Sedigraphy makes it possible to measure particle size of raw materials, slurry and glaze in 0.1-300 micrometer range. The computation gives values of d10, d50, d90, cumulative mass percentage and particle size distribution graphics.
In ceramic industry, to supply continuity of designs, colour differences are important amongst other parameters, and they should be under control in quality control process. Spectrophotometer (colour measurement device) is an equipment which has suitable geometry and different standards. It used to determine small colour differences between a sample and monocolor ceramic tiles designed to have the same colour.
The measurement are able to be done a wide range of wavelength and d/8 geometry, which is a perfect match with CIE reccomendations. Measurement divisions of 3 different diameters are chosen according to the requirements. It is possible to have measurement datas with brightness inclusive (SCI) and exclusive (SCE) cases with the existing spectrophotometer. Similarly, UV inclusive (UVI) and exclusive (UVE) results can be seen at the same time. The datas that TS EN İSO 10548-16 standard requires can be obtained from measurements processed by the equipment. In the device's measurement system, L direction shows colours between black (L=0) and white (L=100) colours, a direction shows colours between red (+a) and green (-a) colours, and b direction shows colours between yellow (+b) and blue (-b) colours. Δe value expresses the colour difference according to the standards of the measurements.
Mercury porosimetry is used in determination of pore size, pore size distribution, surface area measurements and mass density of powders or bulk samples. Based on principle of measurement is, nonwetting liquid such as mercury can not get thin pores, if enough pressure is not applied. After the sample is placed in the measurement unit, system gets vacuumed and the unit is filled with mercury. The equipment determines mercury loss in the unit using the data of capacitance change between the toes. The pore size is calculated as a function of thepressure. The device can measure the pore size in the range: 900 - 4.26 μm at 0-50 psi pressure range, 10.66 - 0.142 μm at 0-1500 psi pressure range, 10.66 - 0.0036 μm at 0-maximum pressure range.
BET device is used in surface area measurements of powder or batch samples and pore size and pore size distribution The device determines needed gas quantity to cover the sample surface with a molecular layer and calculates surface area using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) theory. Equipment analysis active surface area in m2/g unit with chemical absorption technique. Device can be used in determination of porous structure in raw materials, in applications like moisture or gas detectors. Measureable minimum surface area is 0.05 m2/g when nitrogen is used and 0.0005 m2/g when cripton is used. Measureable minimum pore size is 3.5 - 5000 Â with nitrogen and pore volume limis is less than 0.0001 cc/g. BET device, with 1°C/min heating rate, maximum 400°C temperature can be achieved. Non-corrosive gases (N2, Ar, CO2, C4H10 etc.), corrosive steams ) NH3 cyclohexanne etc.) can be used. For the analysis, a quantitiy of powder or massive sample that corresponds to 12-15 m2 is used.
It is a portable profilometer and used for the measurements of Ra, Rz and Rmax values in a range of 5.6 mm line. The probe is made by diamond with a diameter of 0.5 µm. It is also possible to obtain roughness profile.